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However, the part of the brain responsible for our greater mental dexterity than other primates, the cerebral cortex, is well developed in primate (Falk, 2001).Scientists include species within the Genus "Homo" and thus as ancestors of humanity on this basis.Some say there is too much biological discontinuity for the two creatures to be directly related.Others say that bipedalism requires important changes to the bones, muscle arrangement and limb movement.The "cerebral Rubicon" proposed is a cranial volume of 750 cc.Fossils called Java Man (850 cc) and Peking (915 to 1225 cc) are both included within the genus Homo. In north-eastern Tanzania, at Laetoli is the oldest evidence of a bipedal (upright walking) hominid (see books) (see human systematics - taxonomic classification).
Bipedalism arose before the evolution of intelligence or large brain volumes associated with humans, a proposal that Haeckel presented in the 1860's (Reader, 1988).
These human-like footprints are found with guinea fowl and other bird prints, antelope and gazelle, giraffe, elephant, rhinoceros, pig, hyena, baboon, carnivores, hares, and three-toed horse (Leakey and Hay, 1979).
Dated at 3.5 to 3.6 million years old, the prints are preserved in a volcanic ash bed (Reader, 1988).
Some foot bones of such a creature have been found in South Africa (Sterkfontein caves).
This creature's had an ankle bone adapted for upright walking and is almost identical to the ankle bone of a modern human.